Reported speech: major changes

Basic note to remember about reported speech: major changes

When transforming a sentence from the direct to the indirect/reported speech, especially when the reporting verb is in the past, very important changes occur at the level of tenses and some expressions.The following tables illustrate these major changes.

A/ Changes that occur at the level of tenses

Present Simple    → Past SimpleShe said, «  I go home. »She said (that) she went home.
Present Continuous   →   Past ContinuousShe said, «  I  am going home. »She said (that) she was going home.
Present Perfect    →  Past PerfectShe said, «  I have gone home. »She said (that) she had gone home
Past Simple    →   Past PerfectShe said, « I went home »She said (that) she had gone home
Past Continuous    → Past Perfect ContinuousShe said, «  I was going home. »She said (that) she had been going home.
Past Perfect      →   Past PerfectShe said, « I had gone home. »She said (that) she had gone home.
Simple Future    (will   →  would)She said, « I will go home. »She said (that) she would go home.
Near Future (am/is→was) // (are → were)She said, « I am going to go home. »She said (that) she was going to go home.
Future Perfect  ( will  →  would )She said, «  I will have gone home. »She said (that) she would have gone home.
Must/have to/can/may → had to/could/might)She said, « I must/have to/can/may go home. »She said (that) she had to/could/might go home.

B/ Changes that occur at the level of some expressions

                Direct Form             Indirect Form
               this                 that
              these                 those
              here                 there
              now                 then
              me                 him/her
              my                 his/her
              us                 them
              our                  their
              I                 he/she
            we                they
             you      I  / we/he/she/they
            your  my/our/his/her/their
              today that day
           tomorrowthe following day//the day after
           yesterdaythe previous day/the day before
           next weekthe following week/the week after
           last weekthe previous week/the week before
         a year agoa year before/the previous year
the day before yesterdaytwo days before
the day after tomorrowIn two days’ time/ two days after


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